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Spanish-American War


Segregated company of US Soldiers (likely Buffalo Soldiers), Camp Wikoff, 1898 --during the
Spanish-American War National Archives and Records Administration [Public Domain]

Buffalo Soldiers and the Spanish-American War – National Park Service

Christine Bold. "Where Did the Black Rough Riders Go?" Canadian Review of American
39.3 (2009): 273-297. Project MUSE. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.

Gatewood, Willard B. 1987. "Smoked Yankees" and the Struggle for Empire: Letters from Negro Soldiers, 1898-1902. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

Jim Crow in the Spanish American War (1898)

Johnson, Edward A. 1899. History of Negro Soldiers in the Spanish-American War, And Other Items of Interest. Raleigh: Capital Print. Co.

Potter, Joan. 2013. African American Firsts, 4th Edition. [S.l.]:
Kensington Publishing Corp.

Pullen, Frank. “A Perfect Hailstorm of Bullets”: A Black Sergeant Remembers the Battle of San Juan Hill in 1899,” History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web.

Sutherland, Jonathan. 2004. African Americans at War I. Vol. 1.
Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.



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