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Vicente Guerrero (1782-1831) was one of the leading revolutionary
generals of the Mexican War of Independence. He later served
as the 2nd President of Mexico. [Public Domain]

African-American Archaeology, History and Cultures
“This web site is designed to provide convenient access to online presentations and resources concerning the subjects of African-American archaeology, history and cultures,
and broader subjects of African diaspora archaeology. ”

Africa’s Legacy in Mexico what is a Mexican? by Miriam Jimenez Roman
“Black people in Mexico? The looks of amazement and disbelief on the faces of first-time viewers of Tony Gleaton's photographs are eloquent testimony to the significance of these images. Particularly to those who have little or no knowledge about societies beyond the borders of the United States, these photographs are a revelation. They force us to rethink many of our preconceptions not only about our southern neighbor but more generally
about issues such as race, ethnicity, culture, and national identity.”

Africa’s Legacy in Mexico a Legacy of Slavery by Colin A. Palmer
“In the sixteenth century, New Spain--as Mexico was then called--probably had more enslaved Africans than any other colony in the Western Hemisphere. Blacks were present as
slaves of the Spaniards as early as the 1520s. Over the approximately three
hundred years it lasted, the slave trade brought about 200,000 Africans to the colony.”

Bennett, Herman Lee. 2005. Africans In Colonial Mexico: Absolutism, Christianity, And Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570 - 1640. Bloomington, Ind. [u.a.]: Indiana Univ. Press.

Boyce Davies, Carole. 2008. Encyclopedia Of The African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, And Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.

Forbes, Jack D. 1993. Africans And Native Americans: Color, Race, And Caste In The Evolution Of Red-Black Peoples. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Hernández Cuevas, Marco Polo. 2004. African Mexicans And The Discourse On Modern Nation. Dallas [u.a.]: Univ. Press of America.

Menchaca, Martha. 2001. Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. Austin, Tex: Univ. of Texas Press.

History of the Afro-Mexicans Afro-Mexican Influence in Mexico
“The history of the black race in Mexico is both illuminating and mysterious. What makes the story of especially profound is the lack of documentation and discussion on the subject.”

Horne, Gerald. 2004. Black and brown: African Americans And The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920. New York: New York University Press.

Jackson, John G. 1972. Man, God, And Civilization. Secaucus, N.Y.: Citadel Press.

Menchaca, Martha. 2001. Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots Of Mexican Americans. Austin, Tex: Univ. of Texas Press.

Race Now Part 3: Where Did Mexico's Blacks Go? by Steve Sailer UPI, May 9, 2002

Van Sertima, Ivan. 2002. Early America Revisited. New Brunswick [u.a.]:
Transaction Publishers.

Hayes III, Floyed W. “Before Columbus.” Black World, July 1973,
Vol.XXII, No.9, pgs. 4-22

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