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Ancient Empires & Kingdoms

Depiction of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali Empire in the 14th century,
from a 1375 Catalan Atlas of the known world "This Negro lord is called
Musa Mali, Lord of the Negroes of Guinea. So abundant is the gold
which is found in his country that he is the richest and most noble king in all the land.
[Public Domain]

Ancient Africa

Clarke, John Henrik. "Africa in Early World History." Ebony Magazine Aug 1976, Vol. XXXI, No. 10, pages 125-128.

Jackson, John G., John Henrik Clarke, and Runoko Rashidi. 2001. Introduction to African civilizations. New York: Citadel Press.

Ancient Kingdoms of Kush and Kemet

Fyle, C. Magbaily. 1999. Introduction to the History of African civilization 1, 1. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Harkless, Necia Desiree. 2006. Nubian pharaohs and Meroitic kings:
The Kingdom of Kush
. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.

Lobban, Richard A. 2003. Historical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Nubia. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Pub. Group.

Mokhtar, G. 1981. General History of Africa. 2. Ancient Civilizations of Africa.
Edinburgh: Heinemann.

Empires of Ghana

Conrad, David C. 2005. Empires of medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. New York: Facts On File. 

De Graft-Johnson, John Coleman. 1986. African Glory: The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

Mali Empire


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