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Timbuktu & Dejenne

Timbuctoo, According to Caillie, 1844 [Public Domain]

Brook, Larry, and Ray Webb. 1999. Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Timbuktu. Minneapolis: Runestone Press. 

De Graft-Johnson, John Coleman. 1986. African Glory: The Story of Vanished Negro Civilizations. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press.

Falola, Toyin, and Steven J. Salm. 2004. Globalization and Urbanization in Africa. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.

Watson, Noelle. 1996. International Dictionary of Historic Places. Middle East and Africa vol. 4 vol. 4. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.

Old Towns of Djenné - UNESCO - United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization   

Mali Empire

Timbuktu (ca. 1100 –) -



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